Chief among the new features is a previously unheard of "Clone Bay," which replaces your ship's Medbay and at a slight cost lets you revive crew members who've been killed. The developer writes:
"The goal of the Clone Bay was to really disrupt the core way you play the game. You’ll be able to send crew off into dangerous situations without fear of death. Giant alien spiders will no longer be the terrifying, unstoppable force that you’re used to, since the system can simply revive your crew after the event. But, if a stray missile takes out the system mid-clone, you’ll find death can still be quite permanent. And you probably shouldn’t let your crew ponder too long on the fate of their previous iterations."
Indeed. Subset described some other new ship systems (including hacking, mind control, and backup batteries), new visual tweaks, and a new hard mode difficulty in a blog post.
FTL: Advanced Edition will arrive on iPad and as a free expansion to the PC game some time soon. Afterward it could be released on Android and Windows 8 tablets as well, Subset said in the blog post.